The following are based upon the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2010).
APA requires that all numbers between zero to 9 be spelled out:
- One cat
- Two dogs
- Three elephants
- Four kangaroos
- Five ocelots
- Six crabs
- Seven sloths
- Eight pigs
- Nine rabbits
Numbers 10 or Higher
Use numbers (APA calls them figures) to represent numbers greater than 10:
- 10 rhinoceroses
- 111 babies
- 300 lions
Numbers greater than 999
For numbers greater than 999, use a comma (not a period) between thousands:
- 1,111 crows
- 100,000 red balloons
- 1,000,000 people
Exceptions to the rules:
- Use numbers when talking about time (except approximations of time)
- Example: I’ve been studying at VIU for 3 yearsvs.
- I’ve been studying here for about three weeks.
- Numbers that represent time, points on a scale or sums of money
- 1 hour 3 minutes, 7/10, $4.56, etc.
- Numbers the denote a specific place in a series of number
- Example: Chapter 1, Chapter 6, Chapter 10, etc.
- Numbers that proceed a unit of measure
- 3 ft, 1 cm, etc.
- Spell out numbers that might be at the beginning of a title, sentence, or heading
- Three little pigs: A story of tragedy and despair
- Numbers denoting mathematical or statistical processes
- Divide by 3, a multiple of 4, etc.
- Numbers in the abstract of a paper should be in numerals